When an ophthalmologist uses an ophthalmoscope to look into your eye he sees the following view of the retina (Fig. 1).
In the center of the retina is the optic nerve, a circular to oval white area measuring about 2 x 1.5 mm across. From the center of the optic nerve radiates the major blood vessels of the retina. Approximately 17 degrees (4.5-5 mm), or two and half disc diameters to the left of the disc, can be seen the slightly oval-shaped, blood vessel-free reddish spot, the fovea, which is at the center of the area known as the macula by ophthalmologists.
Continue reading @ Simple Anatomy of the Retina – Webvision.